Botany of Transport in plants - Short Notes 1 for NEET Preparation

Botany notes of Transport in plants

Sir Jagadeesh Chandra Bose-father of physiology in india.In 19th century people believe that plants as non-living things. Because of sir J.c.Bose they came to know plants have life &feelings.

Sir J.c.Bose -The first Indian to become fellowship of Royal society .he designed an instrument for detecting Radio waves is the coherer.

Proficiency in physics –won him the first U.S.Patent by Indian.

He explain bio electrical response of plants through pulsating theory to explain ascent of sap in plants.

He designed instrument crescograph which can record growth of plant up to millionth part of millimeter.

J.c.Bose author of books :

1. Research on irritability of Plants

2.Nervous mechanism in plants.

Plants have the capability to move molecules over long distances like (water,minerals,photosynthates,hormones) compared to Animals.. because they don’t have circulatory system unlike animals.

Water taken by roots & transport to all plants parts including tip of growing stem.

Transport process understood by cell structure &Anatomy of plants

Short distance transport occur within cell or between the cells performed by diffusion & cytoplasm streaming..Diffusion-passive movement of substance without using energy within cell or between the cell.where as long distance transport through vascular system is called trans location.

Xylem transport is unidirectional.phloem transport is bidirectional.but transport in plants is multidirectional.simple diffusion is along concentration gradient.facilitated diffusion is against concentration gradient.gaseous movement occurs by diffusion.

Facilitated diffusion; soluble in lipids lipophilic can pass through simple diffusion.soluble in water hydrophilic(liphophobic)insoiuble in lipids carried protein on this inside surface-facilitated diffusion.DNA-Hydrophilic cannot pass through easily plasma membranein this proteins are stationary.

Study of proteins-serology.All Enzymes are proteins but all proteins are not enzymes.

Porins are proteins that form huge pores in the outmembrane of plastids,mitochondria&some bacteria.

8 different types of channels-ACQUA PORINS.

UNIPORT-one protein

Co transport-two proteins.symport &antiport

Symport-same side

Antiport-opposite side

Requires special membranes-Active transport

Highly specific-Facilitated diffusion &Active transport

Transport saturates-Facilitated diffusion&Active transport

Uphill transport-Active transport

Requires ATP energy-Active transport

Simple diffusion is non-living &facilitated diffusion &Active transport is biological living.

VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE;

Watermelon contains more than 92%of water

Herbaceous plants contain 10-15% of fresh weight as dry matter

Woody parts,dry seeds contain less than 1% of water

Corn plant transpires 3 liters of water per day

Mustard plant absorbs water equal to its own weight within 5 hours

WATER POTENTIAL;

Chemical potential potential/free energy/kinetic energy

Water pure only high

Purest form of water- rain water

Water moves from higher water potential to lower water potential.

Water potential of pure water is’’ ZERO’’at 273K& NO PRESSURE.

ANY CELL TAKING WATER FROM OUTSIDE-ENDOSMOSIS-HYPOTONIC CONDITION

Cytoplasm gets bulged.&exters pressure on cell wall –Turgor pressure IN turgid condition

Cell wall also exters same amount of pressure but in opposite direction against pressure-Wall pressure

TURGOR PRESSURE=WALL PRESSURE

HYPERTONIC SOLUTION-

EXOSMOSIS-PLASMOLYSIS

Water is first loss from cell wall than vacuole

Water completely loss

In flaccid cell –pressure potential is ZERO

EXAMPLES OF PLASMOLYSIS;salting of pickles,preserving of fish &meat

OSMOSIS;

IS also type of diffusion higher concentration to lower concentration through semi permeable membrane.

In plant cell selective permeability-cell membrane &Tono plast –Active transport.

Osmo regulation-sodium ions pumped into vacuole

Osmosis regulated by

1.concentrtion

2.pressure

 

IMBIBITION;

Special type of diffusion

Observed in solids increasing their volume

Imbibition capacities different for different organic substances proteins have high capacity than carbohydrates.