Botany notes of Transport in plants
Sir Jagadeesh Chandra Bose-father of physiology in india.In 19th century people believe that plants as non-living things. Because of sir J.c.Bose they came to know plants have life &feelings.
Sir J.c.Bose -The first Indian to become fellowship of Royal society .he designed an instrument for detecting Radio waves is the coherer.
Proficiency in physics –won him the first U.S.Patent by Indian.
He explain bio electrical response of plants through pulsating theory to explain ascent of sap in plants.
He designed instrument crescograph which can record growth of plant up to millionth part of millimeter.
J.c.Bose author of books :
1. Research on irritability of Plants
2.Nervous mechanism in plants.
Plants have the capability to move molecules over long distances like (water,minerals,photosynthates,hormones) compared to Animals.. because they don’t have circulatory system unlike animals.
Water taken by roots & transport to all plants parts including tip of growing stem.
Transport process understood by cell structure &Anatomy of plants
Short distance transport occur within cell or between the cells performed by diffusion & cytoplasm streaming..Diffusion-passive movement of substance without using energy within cell or between the cell.where as long distance transport through vascular system is called trans location.
Xylem transport is unidirectional.phloem transport is bidirectional.but transport in plants is multidirectional.simple diffusion is along concentration gradient.facilitated diffusion is against concentration gradient.gaseous movement occurs by diffusion.
Facilitated diffusion; soluble in lipids lipophilic can pass through simple diffusion.soluble in water hydrophilic(liphophobic)insoiuble in lipids carried protein on this inside surface-facilitated diffusion.DNA-Hydrophilic cannot pass through easily plasma membranein this proteins are stationary.
Study of proteins-serology.All Enzymes are proteins but all proteins are not enzymes.
Porins are proteins that form huge pores in the outmembrane of plastids,mitochondria&some bacteria.
8 different types of channels-ACQUA PORINS.
Co transport-two proteins.symport &antiport
Requires special membranes-Active transport
Highly specific-Facilitated diffusion &Active transport
Transport saturates-Facilitated diffusion&Active transport
Uphill transport-Active transport
Requires ATP energy-Active transport
Simple diffusion is non-living &facilitated diffusion &Active transport is biological living.
VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE;
Watermelon contains more than 92%of water
Herbaceous plants contain 10-15% of fresh weight as dry matter
Woody parts,dry seeds contain less than 1% of water
Corn plant transpires 3 liters of water per day
Mustard plant absorbs water equal to its own weight within 5 hours
Chemical potential potential/free energy/kinetic energy
Water pure only high
Purest form of water- rain water
Water moves from higher water potential to lower water potential.
Water potential of pure water is’’ ZERO’’at 273K& NO PRESSURE.
ANY CELL TAKING WATER FROM OUTSIDE-ENDOSMOSIS-HYPOTONIC CONDITION
Cytoplasm gets bulged.&exters pressure on cell wall –Turgor pressure IN turgid condition
Cell wall also exters same amount of pressure but in opposite direction against pressure-Wall pressure
TURGOR PRESSURE=WALL PRESSURE
Water is first loss from cell wall than vacuole
Water completely loss
In flaccid cell –pressure potential is ZERO
EXAMPLES OF PLASMOLYSIS;salting of pickles,preserving of fish &meat
IS also type of diffusion higher concentration to lower concentration through semi permeable membrane.
In plant cell selective permeability-cell membrane &Tono plast –Active transport.
Osmo regulation-sodium ions pumped into vacuole
Osmosis regulated by
Special type of diffusion
Observed in solids increasing their volume
Imbibition capacities different for different organic substances proteins have high capacity than carbohydrates.